We present the three-dimensional structure of rat DPPIV/CD26, as determined by cryo-TEM and single particle analysis at a resolution of approximately 14A. The reconstruction confirms that the protein exists as a dimer, as predicted earlier. Since there are structural analogies to the serine peptidase POP, docking calculations of the two structures were performed. Although the docking showed a similar spatial organization (catalytic domain, beta-propeller, distal opening, central cavity), the detailed comparison revealed clear discrepancies. The most marked difference is a second (lateral) opening in DPPIV/CD26, which would enable direct access to the catalytic site. We therefore assume that substrate selectivity and binding rate are most probably driven by different mechanisms in DPPIV/CD26 and POP.