Ten anti-human lymphocyte sera in clinical use at six transplant centers and five anti-nonhuman lymphocyte sera were studied for their procoagulant and platelet-aggregating properties. This investigation was initiated following the observation of a clinical episode of renal artery thrombosis, associated with the use of one of the sera in a patient who had received a cadaveric renal transplant. The procoagulant from this serum shortened the clotting times of individual samples deficient, respectively, in factors XII, XI IX, X VIII, and VII. Esterolytic activity, demonstrated on the substrate benzoylarginine ethyl ester, was completely inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, but coagulant activity was variably affected. The platelet-aggregating activity (PAA) has been identified as a complement-fixing gamma G antibody that was absorbed from the antilymphocyte serum (ALS) with human spleen lymphocytes. Five of the ten anti-human lymphocyte sera showed varying procoagulant activity (PCA), and six sera demonstrated PAA. Three sera contained both activities. The presence of both PCA and PAA in the same preparation may predispose patients to thrombotic events, particularly if administered intravenously. Sera should be screened for PCA and PAA prior to clinical use, and sera with these properties should be used with caution.