The transcription factor Cbfa1 regulates osteoblast differentiation and expression of genes necessary for the development of a mineralized phenotype. The purpose of this study was to determine if Cbfa1 and BSPII gene expression are influenced by implant surface microtopography. Osteoblasts were cultured on 600-grit (grooved) or sandblasted (roughened) cpTi implant discs. Mineralization was evaluated by Alizarin-Red-S staining. Real Time PCR was used for quantitative analysis of Cbfa1 and BSPII gene expression. Enhanced mineralization was seen in osteoblasts grown on roughened implant surfaces relative to tissue culture plastic. Real Time PCR showed significant (P < 0.05) increases in Cbfa1 gene expression in cells grown on roughened, as compared with grooved, implant surfaces. BSPII gene expression was also increased on rough surfaces in the UMR cells, but was reduced in the rat calvarial osteoblast cultures. These results suggest that osteoblast gene expression and mineralization are affected by roughened implant surface microtopographies during osseointegration of dental implants.