Manual 768 or 384 well microplate gel 'dry' electrophoresis for PCR checking and SNP genotyping

Nucleic Acids Res. 2003 May 1;31(9):e48. doi: 10.1093/nar/gng048.


Electrophoresis continues to be a mainstay in molecular genetic laboratories for checking, sizing and separating both PCR products, nucleic acids derived from in vivo or in vitro sources and nucleic acid-protein complexes. Many genomic and genetic applications demand high throughput, such as the checking of amplification products from many loci, from many clones, from many cell lines or from many individuals at once. These applications include microarray resource development and expression analysis, genome mapping, library and DNA bank screening, mutagenesis experiments and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. PCR hardware compatible with industry standard 96 and 384 well microplates is commonplace. We have previously described a simple system for submerged horizontal 96 and 192 well polyacrylamide or agarose microplate array diagonal gel electrophoresis (MADGE) which is microplate compatible and suitable for PCR checking, SNP typing (restriction fragment length polymorphism or amplification refractory mutation system), microsatellite sizing and identification of unknown mutations. By substantial redesign of format and operations, we have derived an efficient 'dry' gel system that enables direct 96 pin manual transfer from PCR or other reactions in microplates, into 768 or 384 well gels. Combined with direct electrode contact in clamshell electrophoresis boxes which plug directly to contacts in a powered stacking frame and using 5-10 min electrophoresis times, it would be possible (given a sufficient supply of PCRs for examination) for 1 million gel tracks to be run per day for a minimal hardware investment and at minimal reagent costs. Applications of this system for PCR checking and SNP genotyping are illustrated.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • DNA / analysis
  • DNA / genetics
  • Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel / instrumentation
  • Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel / methods*
  • Genotype
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics*
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA / methods


  • DNA