Purpose: To investigate genes that are up- and downregulated in rat retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury systematically by using an oligonucleotide microarray system and to determine temporal and spatial expression changes of some genes that showed upregulation in the analysis.
Methods: Retinal ischemia was induced in rats by increasing intraocular pressure to 110 mm Hg for 1 hour. Gene expression at 12 hours after reperfusion was compared with that in the control retina by using oligonucleotide microarrays that display a total of 8800 genes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Temporal and spatial expression changes of immediate early genes and cell-cycle-related genes were studied by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical methods.
Results: At 12 hours after reperfusion, 135 genes and ESTs were found to be up- or downregulated. The upregulated genes were classified into seven groups: (1) immediate early genes; (2) cell-cycle-related genes; (3) stress-responsive protein genes; (4) cell-signaling protein genes; (5) cell-adhesion and cell surface protein genes; (6) genes for translation and protein turnover; and (7) genes for metabolism. Real-time PCR analyses showed peaks of Fra-1 expression at 6 hours after reperfusion, whereas those for c-Jun, Jun B, and cyclin D1 were at 24 hours. Fra-1 and Jun B immunoreactivities were found in Müller cells, whereas c-Jun and cyclin D1 immunoreactivities were found in apoptotic retinal neurons.
Conclusions: Gene expression changes after a retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury were profiled by using an oligonucleotide microarray system. Seven groups of genes were found to be upregulated by the injury. Among the immediate early genes, Fra-1 and Jun B immunoreactivities were found in Müller cells whereas c-Jun and cyclin D1 immunoreactivities were found in apoptotic retinal neurons.