Efficacy and low vascular toxicity of embolization with radical versus anionic polymerization of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). An experimental study in the swine

J Neuroradiol. 2003 Mar;30(2):95-102.


Background and purpose: To compare the efficacy and vascular toxicity of embolization with radical (NBCA+metacryloxysulpholane=CS) versus conventional anionic (NBCA alone=CA) polymerization of NBCA.

Materials and methods: Under continuous digital subtracted angiography (DSA) recordings, a 0.2 mL volume of identical glue mixtures were injected in a single-step procedure, concomitantly, in left and right (with CS and CA, respectively) renal arterial branches (RAB) and ascending pharyngeal arteries (APA) in 8 swines. Arterial histopathology and morphometry of inflammation were investigated at 2 weeks.

Results: Complete embolization was achieved with equivalent cast homogeneity on DSA with both NBCA mixtures in RAB and APA. Inflammatory crowns in APA and RAB were significantly lower in CS - than in CA-treated sites (p<0.001). CS plug was scarcely adhesive to the vascular wall, and pulled apart from the wall by a residual thrombotic lining; in contrast with CA casts that were strongly adhesive to walls with endothelium stripping.

Conclusions: Anionic and radical polymerization of NBCA embolization was identical with regards to occlusion rate; whereas radical pathway of polymerization with cyanoacrylates lowered histotoxicity with a less sustained adhesiveness of casts against vascular walls.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Angiography, Digital Subtraction
  • Animals
  • Arteritis / pathology
  • Cyanoacrylates / toxicity*
  • Embolization, Therapeutic / methods*
  • Enbucrilate / toxicity*
  • Endothelium, Vascular / diagnostic imaging
  • Endothelium, Vascular / drug effects*
  • Endothelium, Vascular / pathology
  • Foreign-Body Reaction / pathology
  • Male
  • Polymers*
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Swine


  • Cyanoacrylates
  • Polymers
  • glubran 2
  • Enbucrilate