Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles with a single membrane that contain over 50 different enzymes that catalyse various metabolic pathways, including beta-oxidation and lipid synthesis. Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs), such as Zellweger syndrome and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, are fatal genetic diseases that are autosomal recessive. Among the PBDs of the 12 complementation groups (CGs), 11 associated PEX genes have been isolated. Accordingly, only the PBD pathogenic gene for CG8 (also called CG-A) remains unidentified. Here we have isolated human PEX26 encoding a type II peroxisomal membrane protein of relative molecular mass 34,000 (M(r) 34K) by using ZP167 cells, a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutant cell line. Expression of PEX26 restores peroxisomal protein import in the fibroblasts of an individual with PBD of CG8. This individual possesses a homozygous, inactivating pathogenic point mutation, Arg98Trp, in Pex26. Pex6 and Pex1 of the AAA ATPase family co-immunoprecipitate with Pex26. Epitope-tagged Pex6 and Pex1 are discernible as puncta in normal CHO-K1 cells, but not in PEX26-defective cells. PEX26 expression in ZP167 cells re-establishes colocalization of Pex6 and Pex1 with Pex26, in a Pex6-dependent manner. Thus, Pex26 recruits Pex6-Pex1 complexes to peroxisomes.