Reproductive factors are not considered to play a significant role in the aetiology of breast cancer in low incidence regions like Gujarat, although it is well established that they exert a major influence on such tumours in the western developed world. Women in the western Indian region have a very low prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption but a high prevalence of vegetarianism. Noting the changes in the life style practices with increasing affluence is likely to yield several interesting findings in such a population. Physical activity and dietary factors have emerged as important parameters and their lack may contribute significantly to the risk of breast cancers. The breast cancer risk significantly increased with higher consumption of total fat (>25% of total calories), frequent intake of fried foods and sweets. A significant protection was offered by frequent consumption of green yellow leafy vegetables, foods rich in b-carotene and isoflavonoids. The present study demonstrated a good protective effect of dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins. The breast cancer risk increases with elevation of circulating lipid components except HDL-cholesterol.