Relationship between cervical lordosis and facial morphology in Caucasian women with a skeletal class II malocclusion: a cross-sectional study

Cranio. 2003 Apr;21(2):121-9. doi: 10.1080/08869634.2003.11746240.


Several published studies show a relationship between craniofacial morphology and head posture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between cervical lordosis angle and mandibular length from lateral skull radiographs, and to investigate the relationship between mandibular retrusion and cervical lordosis angle decreasing. The sample comprised 70 Caucasian adult women, average 27.4, in skeletal class II and Angle class II. Lateral skull radiographs were obtained in natural head position (mirror position). Ten morphological variables were individuated on tracings. In order to assess errors due to landmark identification, double measurements were made in ten randomly selected radiographs and were compared with Dahlberg's formula. A Sperman's rank correlation test showed a negative correlation (P < 0.01) between cervical lordosis and mandibular length (compensatory curvature of the cervical spine) and positive correlation between anterior cranial base and maxillary length (P < 0.05). Based upon the cross-sectional method, no conclusion was possible about the mechanism concerning these results. Future longitudinal studies in growing patients should be directed to understanding the extent of environmental and genotype influences on cervical lordosis angle.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cephalometry
  • Cervical Vertebrae / pathology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • European Continental Ancestry Group*
  • Face*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Malocclusion, Angle Class III / pathology*
  • Mandible / pathology
  • Maxilla / pathology
  • Neck Pain / pathology
  • Observer Variation
  • Posture / physiology
  • Skull Base / pathology
  • Statistics, Nonparametric