Design, synthesis, and evaluation of benzothiadiazepine hydroxamates as selective tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme inhibitors

J Med Chem. 2003 May 8;46(10):1811-23. doi: 10.1021/jm020475w.


Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) have been associated with several inflammatory diseases, and therefore, strategies for its suppression have become important targets in drug discovery. Our efforts to suppress TNF-alpha have centered on the inhibition of TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE) through the use of hydroxamate inhibitors. Starting from broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors, we have designed and synthesized novel benzothiadiazepines as potent and selective TACE inhibitors. The benzothiadiazepines were synthesized with variation in P1 and P1' in order to effect potency and selectivity. The inhibitors were evaluated versus porcine TACE (pTACE), and the initial selectivity was assessed with counterscreens of MMP-1, -2, and -9. Several potent and selective inhibitors were discovered with compound 41 being the most active against pTACE (K(i) = 5 nM) while still maintaining good selectivity versus the MMP's (at least 75-fold). Most compounds were assessed in the human peripheral blood mononuclear cell assay (PBMC) and the human whole blood assay (WBA) to determine their ability to suppress TNF-alpha. Compound 32 was the most potent compound in the PBMC assay (IC(50) = 0.35 microM), while compound 62 was the most active in the WBA (IC(50) = 1.4 microM).

MeSH terms

  • ADAM Proteins
  • ADAM17 Protein
  • Animals
  • Benzodiazepinones / chemical synthesis*
  • Benzodiazepinones / chemistry
  • Benzodiazepinones / pharmacology
  • Blood Proteins / metabolism
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / chemical synthesis*
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / chemistry
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Hydroxamic Acids / chemical synthesis*
  • Hydroxamic Acids / chemistry
  • Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / drug effects
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors
  • Metalloendopeptidases / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Models, Molecular
  • Protein Binding
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Swine
  • Thiazepines / chemical synthesis*
  • Thiazepines / chemistry
  • Thiazepines / pharmacology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / biosynthesis


  • Benzodiazepinones
  • Blood Proteins
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Hydroxamic Acids
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors
  • N-hydroxy-2-(7-(3-nitrophenoxy)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo(1,2,5-f)thiadiazepine-1,1-dioxide)propanamide
  • N-hydroxy-2-(7-benzyloxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo(1,2,5-f)thiadiazepine-1,1-dioxide)-4-methylpentanamide
  • Thiazepines
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • ADAM Proteins
  • Metalloendopeptidases
  • ADAM17 Protein
  • ADAM17 protein, human