Studies are described on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the new designer drug rac-p-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) in rat urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identified metabolites indicated that PMMA was extensively metabolized mainly by O-demethylation to pholedrine and to a minor extent to p-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), 1-hydroxypholedrine diastereomers (one being oxilofrine), 4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxymethamphetamine and 4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyamphetamine. The authors' systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure using full-scan GC-MS after acid hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction and microwave-assisted acetylation allowed the detection of the main metabolites of PMMA in rat urine after a dose corresponding to that of drug users. Therefore, this procedure should be suitable for detection of PMMA intake in human urine via its metabolites. However, it must be considered that pholedrine and oxilofrine are also in therapeutic use. Differentiation of PMMA, PMA and/or pholedrine intake is discussed.