A synthetic lipid A of Helicobacter pylori strain 206-1 (compound HP206-1), which is similar to its natural lipid A, exhibited no or very low endotoxic activities as compared to Escherichia coli-type synthetic lipid A (compound 506). Furthermore, compound HP206-1 as well as its natural lipid A demonstrated no or very low mitogenic responses in murine spleen cell. On the other hand, compound HP206-1 showed a weaker but significant production of interleukin-8 in a gastric cancer cell line, MKN-1, in comparison with compound 506. Furthermore, compound HP206-1 exhibited induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the cytokine production was clearly inhibited by mouse anti-human Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 monoclonal antibody HTA125. Our findings indicate that the chemically synthesized lipid A, mimicking the natural lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide from H. pylori strain 206-1, has a low endotoxic potency and immunobiological activities, and is recognized by TLR4.