A multigenic model of prostate cancer susceptibility has been proposed, in which common polymorphic variants of genes, such as the androgen and vitamin D receptor, contribute to tumorigenesis. The discovery of additional genetic factors that contribute to prostate cancer risk should provide opportunities for new approaches to the detection and treatment of this common malignancy. Herein, we examined single nucleotide polymorphic variants in the 3'-untranslated region of CDKN1A (p21(cip1)) and in codon 109 of CDKN1B (p27(kip1)) for association with advanced prostate cancer in a European-American population. Ninety-six cases and 106 controls were analyzed using PCR amplification and restriction digestion assays. CDKN1A genotype was scored as CC, CT, and TT on the basis of the digestion products. The CDKN1A genotypes CT and TT were associated with an increased risk of advanced prostate carcinoma compared with the CC genotype [odds ratio (OR), 2.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-4.95]. The CDKN1B genotype was scored as VV, VG, or GG, again on the basis of the digestion products. The CDKN1B genotype VV was also associated with an increased risk of advanced prostate carcinoma (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.09-3.47). These associations were particularly strong in those patients with androgen-independent disease [OR = 2.88 (95% CI, 1.19-6.97) and 2.11 (95% CI, 1.05-4.22) for high-risk genotypes of CDKN1A and CDKN1B, respectively]. In addition, the association of CDKN1B was particularly strong in the cohort of patients under the median age of diagnosis (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.08-4.59). These results suggest that in a European-American population, CDKN1A and CDKN1B variants are associated with advanced prostate cancer. Analysis of CDKN1A and/or CDKN1B genotypes may prove useful in determining which patients are at risk for developing advanced prostate carcinoma and therefore would gain the most from aggressive screening, prophylaxis, and/or treatment.