Cyanobacterial circadian clockwork: roles of KaiA, KaiB and the kaiBC promoter in regulating KaiC

EMBO J. 2003 May 1;22(9):2117-26. doi: 10.1093/emboj/cdg168.


Using model strains in which we ectopically express the cyanobacterial clock protein KaiC in cells from which the clock genes kaiA, kaiB and/or kaiC are deleted, we found that some features of circadian clocks in eukaryotic organisms are conserved in the clocks of prokaryotic cyanobacteria, but others are not. One unexpected difference is that the circadian autoregulatory feedback loop in cyanobacteria does not require specific clock gene promoters as it does in eukaryotes, because a heterologous promoter can functionally replace the kaiBC promoter. On the other hand, a similarity between eukaryotic clock proteins and the cyanobacterial KaiC protein is that KaiC is phosphorylated in vivo. The other essential clock proteins KaiA and KaiB modulate the status of KaiC phosphorylation; KaiA inhibits KaiC dephosphorylation and KaiB antagonizes this action of KaiA. Based upon an analysis of clock mutants, we conclude that the circadian period in cyanobacteria is determined by the phosphorylation status of KaiC and also by the degradation rate of KaiC. These observations are integrated into a model proposing rhythmic changes in chromosomal status.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / physiology*
  • Base Sequence
  • Circadian Rhythm / genetics*
  • Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Cyanobacteria / genetics
  • Cyanobacteria / physiology*
  • DNA Primers
  • Phosphorylation
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • DNA Primers
  • KaiA protein, cyanobacteria
  • KaiB protein, cyanobacteria
  • KaiC protein, cyanobacteria