Members of the Luteoviridae are transmitted by aphids in a circulative, nonpropagative manner that requires the virus to be acquired through gut tissue into the aphid hemocoel and then exit through salivary tissues. This process is aphid species-specific and involves specific recognition of the virus by unidentified components on the membranes of gut and salivary tissues. Transport through the tissues is an endocytosis/exocytosis process. Both structural proteins of the virus are involved in the transmission process, with multiple protein domains regulating the movement and survival of the virus in the aphid and plant. Here we review what is known about the genetic, cellular, and molecular mechanisms regulating these complex and specific virus-aphid interactions.