Recently, we described an 80-kDa lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding membrane protein to be identical to CD55 [decay accelerating factor (DAF)]. Here, we demonstrate that CD55 is able to contribute to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling. Transfection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with human CD55 resulted in a translocation of NF-kappa B after stimulation with LPS as well as with free lipid A. In addition, interaction of lipid A and CD55 was shown by co-immuno-precipitation of these molecules from CHO-CD55 cells after incubation with lipid A and anti-lipid A monoclonal antibody, as well as by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis in human monocytes. The comparison of LPS-induced signaling pathways in CHO-CD55 and CHO-CD14 cells revealed that p38, JNK and ERK MAP kinases are activated upon LPS stimulation in both cell lines, and that the activation by LPS can be blocked at the level of Toll-like receptor 4. Finally, through FRET analysis we could demonstrate LPS-induced clustering of CD55 and CD11/CD18 in human monocytes. Our results imply a new functional role of CD55 as a member of a multimeric LPS receptor complex.