An extensive review of the literature on sexual orientation and health, lesbian health, and women and smoking revealed no studies that focus on smoking among lesbians or bisexual women. However, several health surveys conducted in the past 15 to 20 years report rates of current smoking. Findings from these studies as a whole suggest that lesbians are more likely than heterosexual women to smoke. Research on women and smoking is reviewed to identify potential risk factors for lesbians' smoking. Implications for future research and for prevention and intervention are discussed.