The recent literature has focused on the need for appropriate identification, assessment, and management of sports-related concussion. This article addresses current issues in the prevalence and assessment of sports-related concussion. Despite a paucity of research on female athletes and youth athletes, there is evidence that female athletes are at higher risk for injury than males and that concussions may affect children and young adolescents differently than older adolescents and adults. Sideline, baseline, and postconcussion assessments have become prevalent in documenting preinjury and postinjury performance, tracking recovery rates, and assisting return-to-play decisions. New computerized assessment procedures are growing in popularity and use. Future directions in the assessment and management of sports-related concussion include increased research on prevalence rates and effects of concussions for females and youth athletes, educating parents of youth athletes as well as family physicians on the importance of baseline and postconcussion cognitive assessments, and further validation of computerized assessment measures.