Evaluation of dyspnea in the elderly

Clin Geriatr Med. 2003 Feb;19(1):19-33, v. doi: 10.1016/s0749-0690(02)00050-2.


The word "dyspnea" encompasses many different features. It can be considered to be a sensation, a symptom, or an illness. From a practical perspective many physicians and nurses use dyspnea to refer to difficult or labored breathing or an uncomfortable awareness of breathing. The American Thoracic Society recently defined dyspnea as a subjective experience of breathing discomfort that consists of qualitatively distinct sensations that vary in intensity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aging / physiology
  • Chronic Disease
  • Dyspnea* / diagnosis
  • Dyspnea* / physiopathology
  • Dyspnea* / therapy
  • Exercise / physiology
  • Humans
  • Physical Examination
  • Respiratory Function Tests
  • Respiratory Muscles / physiology