Estimating the incidence of typhoid fever and other febrile illnesses in developing countries

Emerg Infect Dis. 2003 May;9(5):539-44. doi: 10.3201/eid0905.020428.


To measure the incidence of typhoid fever and other febrile illnesses in Bilbeis District, Egypt, we conducted a household survey to determine patterns of health seeking among persons with fever. Then we established surveillance for 4 months among a representative sample of health providers who saw febrile patients. Health providers collected epidemiologic information and blood (for culture and serologic testing) from eligible patients. After adjusting for the provider sampling scheme, test sensitivity, and seasonality, we estimated that the incidence of typhoid fever was 13/100,000 persons per year, and the incidence of brucellosis was 18/100,000 persons per year in the district. This surveillance tool could have wide applications for surveillance for febrile illness in developing countries.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Brucellosis / diagnosis
  • Brucellosis / epidemiology*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Data Collection
  • Developing Countries / statistics & numerical data*
  • Egypt / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Health Behavior
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Seasons
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Sentinel Surveillance
  • Typhoid Fever / blood
  • Typhoid Fever / diagnosis
  • Typhoid Fever / epidemiology*