The terminal step of cytokinesis in animal cells is the abscission of the midbody, a cytoplasmic bridge that connects the two prospective daughter cells. Here we show that two members of the SNARE membrane fusion machinery, syntaxin 2 and endobrevin/VAMP-8, specifically localize to the midbody during cytokinesis in mammalian cells. Inhibition of their function by overexpression of nonmembrane-anchored mutants causes failure of cytokinesis leading to the formation of binucleated cells. Time-lapse microscopy shows that only midbody abscission but not further upstream events, such as furrowing, are affected. These results indicate that successful completion of cytokinesis requires a SNARE-mediated membrane fusion event and that this requirement is distinct from exocytic events that may be involved in prior ingression of the plasma membrane.