Study objective: While previous studies have suggested an association between obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular complications, the effects of primary snoring in children on daytime systemic BP and arterial distensibility remain unknown.
Design and patients: To determine the effects of primary snoring on BP and peripheral conduit artery distensibility, 30 children with primary snoring were studied at an age of 9.5 +/- 2.8 years (mean +/- SD). Systemic BP was measured using an automated device, while brachioradial arterial distensibility was assessed by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV), which is inversely related to the square root of distensibility. The results were compared to those of 30 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex, and body size.
Results: As compared to control subjects, children with primary snoring had significantly higher systolic BP (112 +/- 10 mm Hg vs 105 +/- 8 mm Hg, p = 0.001), diastolic BP (60 +/- 7 mm Hg vs 53 +/- 9 mm Hg, p = 0.004), and mean BP (81 +/- 7 mm Hg vs 71 +/- 8 mm Hg, p < 0.001). Likewise, those with primary snoring had significantly higher PWV (9.7 +/- 1.6 m/s vs 7.9 +/- 2.0 m/s, p = 0.001). Multiple regression identified age, body mass index (BMI), and primary snoring as significant determinants of systemic BP; however, primary snoring is the only significant determinant of PWV. Regardless of the BMI, systemic BP and PWV remained significantly higher in children with primary snoring.
Conclusion: Children with primary snoring have increased daytime systemic BP and reduced arterial distensibility, which may jeopardize long-term cardiovascular health.