Structural determinants in human DNA polymerase gamma account for mitochondrial toxicity from nucleoside analogs

J Mol Biol. 2003 May 23;329(1):45-57. doi: 10.1016/s0022-2836(03)00405-4.


Although antiviral nucleoside analog therapy successfully delays progression of HIV infection to AIDS, these drugs cause unwelcome side-effects by inducing mitochondrial toxicity. We and others have demonstrated that the mitochondrial polymerase, DNA polymerase gamma (pol gamma), participates in mitochondrial toxicity by incorporating these chain-terminating antiviral nucleotide analogs into DNA. Here, we explore the role of three highly conserved amino acid residues in the active site of human pol gamma that modulate selection of nucleotide analogs as substrates for incorporation. Sequence alignments, crystal structures and mutagenesis studies of family A DNA polymerases led us to change Tyr951 and Tyr955 in polymerase motif B to Phe and Ala, and Glu895 in polymerase motif A was changed to Ala. The mutant polymerases were tested for their ability to incorporate natural nucleotides and the five antiviral nucleoside analogs currently approved for antiviral therapy: AZT, ddC, D4T, 3TC and carbovir. Steady-state kinetic analysis of the pol gamma derivatives with the normal and antiviral nucleotides demonstrated that Tyr951 is largely responsible for the ability of pol gamma to incorporate dideoxynucleotides and D4T-MP. Mutation of Tyr951 to Phe renders the enzyme resistant to dideoxynucleotides and D4T-TP without compromising the activity of the polymerase. Alteration of Glu895 and Tyr955 to Ala had the largest effect on overall polymerase activity with normal nucleotides, producing dramatic increases in K(m(dNTP)) and large decreases in k(cat). Mutation of Tyr955 in pol gamma causes the degenerative disease progressive external ophthalmoplegia in humans, and we show that this residue partially accounts for the ability of pol gamma to incorporate D4T-MP and carbovir. Alteration of Glu895 to Ala slightly increased discrimination against dideoxynucleotides and D4T-TP. The mechanisms by which pol gamma selects certain nucleotide analogs are discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Anti-HIV Agents / metabolism
  • Anti-HIV Agents / toxicity*
  • Baculoviridae / genetics
  • Binding Sites
  • DNA Polymerase gamma
  • DNA Primers / chemistry
  • DNA, Viral / adverse effects
  • DNA, Viral / metabolism
  • DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase / chemistry*
  • DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase / genetics
  • DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase / metabolism*
  • Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay
  • Humans
  • Lamivudine / toxicity
  • Mitochondria / drug effects*
  • Mitochondria / enzymology
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Protein Conformation
  • Protein Folding
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / toxicity*
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Stavudine / toxicity
  • Zalcitabine / toxicity
  • Zidovudine / toxicity


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • DNA Primers
  • DNA, Viral
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
  • Lamivudine
  • Zidovudine
  • Zalcitabine
  • Stavudine
  • DNA Polymerase gamma
  • DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase