Bacterial inflammation in mucosa is accompanied by morphological and proliferative changes in goblet cells and mucin hypersecretion. Main stimulators of bacterial inflammation are bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). In vitro investigation of the LPS effect on the molecular processes in goblet cells, using the human mucin-secreting goblet cell line HT29-MTX, showed the following results. LPS up-regulated mucin and cytokine mRNA expression and secretion in goblet cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner, with a maximum output at an LPS concentration of 100 ng/ml. LPS (100 ng/ml) increased mRNA expression of MUC5AC (2.4x), MUC5B (2.1x), and IL-8 (2.3x) and stimulated secretion of mucins (MUC5AC up to 39%, MUC5B up to 31%) and the inflammatory cytokine IL-8 (up to 10x). A significant correlation was found between the LPS-induced IL-8 secretion and secretion of mucins. These results suggest: (1) goblet cells, responding to the direct stimulation of bacterial LPS by two inflammatory-related processes such as production and secretion of the gel-forming mucins and the inflammatory cytokine IL-8, can be considered as an important part of mucosal immunity and (2) LPS- induced goblet cell mucin secretion can occur partly via IL-8-dependent pathway.