Merozoite Surface Protein-1(42) (MSP-1(42)) is a leading vaccine candidate against erythrocytic malaria parasites. We cloned and expressed Plasmodium falciparum MSP-1(42) (3D7 clone) in Escherichia coli. The antigen was purified to greater than 95% homogeneity by using nickel-, Q- and carboxy-methyl (CM)-substituted resins. The final product, designated Falciparum Merozoite Protein-1 (FMP1), had endotoxin levels significantly lower than FDA standards. It was structurally correct based on binding conformation-dependent mAbs, and was stable. Functional antibodies from rabbits vaccinated with FMP1 in Freund's adjuvant inhibited parasite growth in vitro and also inhibited secondary processing of MSP-1(42). FMP1 formulated with GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK) adjuvant, AS02A or alum was safe and immunogenic in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys.