Five young monovarietal white wines from the Canary Islands made from Gual, Verdello, Marmajuelo, white Listán, and Malvasia grape cultivars were studied to determine the characteristics of their most important aromas and the differences among them. The study was carried out using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) to detect the potentially most important aroma compounds, which were then analyzed quantitatively by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The strongest odorants in the GC-O experiments were similar in all cases, although significant differences in intensity between samples were noted. Calculation of the odor activity values (OAVs) showed that 3-mercaptohexyl acetate was the most active odorant in the Marmajuelo and Verdello wines, as were 3-methylbutyl acetate in the Gual wine, beta-damascenone in the Malvasia wine, and ethyl octanoate in the white Listán wine. However, the most important differences between varieties were caused by the three mercaptans (3-mercaptohexyl acetate, 3-mercaptohexanol, and 4-methyl-4-mercapto-2-pentanone) and the vinylphenols (4-vinylphenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol). The correlation between the olfactometric values and the OAVs was satisfactory in the cases when the compound eluted in the GC-O system was well isolated from other odorants and had aromatic importance and the OAVs for the different wines were sufficiently different.