A phase II safety and immunogenicity study of an oral-formalin inactivated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccine containing six colonization factors (CFA/I, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5) and 1mg of recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (the CF-BS-ETEC vaccine) was carried out in an urban slum of Dhaka city in Bangladesh. The study was carried out in a double blinded, placebo controlled design in 158 children, 18-36 months of age. Children were given two doses of the CF-BS-ETEC vaccine or the placebo which consisted of E. coli K12. The vaccine was well tolerated. The immune response was studied in 60 children (30 each in the placebo and vaccine group). Significant vaccine specific IgA antibody-secreting cell (ASC) responses were seen 7 days after ingestion of the first and second dose of the vaccine. The responses to CFA/I (P<or=0.001), CS2 (P=0.021), CS4 (P=0.009) and rCTB (P<or=0.001) were elevated in the vaccines in comparison to the pre-immune values and in comparison to those seen in the placebo recipients (P=0.018 to <0.001). Vaccines but not placebo recipients also showed significantly increased IgM ASC responses to all three CF antigens that were tested (P=0.012 to <0.001) and IgG-ASCs to rCTB (P<0.001). Peak ASC levels were reached after one dose of the vaccine with no further increase or decrease after the second dose. The vaccine recipients also responded with IgA plasma antibodies to CFA/I, CS1, CS2, CS4 and rCTB after one or two doses of the vaccine (P=0.01 to <0.001). Subjects in the placebo group failed to mount responses to any of the antigens. The vaccine also induced responses in mucosal IgA antibodies in feces to CFA/I, CS2 and rCTB (61, 88 and 69% responder frequency, respectively) and the magnitude of the response was elevated in comparison to the pre-immune levels (P=0.031 to <0.001) and to the levels of the control group (P=0.003 to <0.001). This study thus shows that the CF-BS-ETEC vaccine is well tolerated in children, 18-36 months of age and gives rise to significant systemic and mucosal IgA antibody responses.