Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) acts via its G protein-coupled receptor (GLP-1R) to regulate blood glucose. Although the GLP-1R is widely expressed in peripheral tissues, including the heart, and exogenous GLP-1 administration increases heart rate and blood pressure in rodents, the physiological importance of GLP-1R action in the cardiovascular system remains unclear. We now show that 2-month-old mice with genetic deletion of the GLP-1R (GLP-1R(-/-)) exhibit reduced resting heart rate and elevated left ventricular (LV) end diastolic pressure compared with CD-1 wild-type controls. At the age of 5 months, echocardiography and histology demonstrate increased LV thickness in GLP-1R(-/-) mice. Although baseline hemodynamic parameters of GLP-1R(-/-) did not differ significantly from those of wild type, GLP-1R(-/-) mice displayed impaired LV contractility and diastolic function after insulin administration. The defective cardiovascular response to insulin was not attributable to a generalized defect in the stress response, because GLP-1R(-/-) mice responded appropriately to insulin with increased c-fos expression in the hypothalamus and increased circulating levels of glucagon and epinephrine. Furthermore, LV contractility after exogenous epinephrine infusion was also reduced in GLP-1R(-/-) mice. These findings provide new evidence implicating an essential role for GLP-1R in the control of murine cardiac structure and function in vivo.