This study sought to assess the risk of secondary transmission after import of Lassa fever into Europe. A total of 232 persons exposed to a case of Lassa fever imported into Germany were identified. The level of exposure was determined for 157 persons (68%), and 149 (64%) were tested serologically. High-risk or close contact was reported by 30 (19%) of 157 persons. No symptomatic secondary infections were observed. However, Lassa virus-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies were detected in a serum sample obtained from a physician who examined the index patient on day 9 of illness. The physician received ribavirin prophylaxis and did not develop symptoms of Lassa fever. On the basis of these data, the contact was classified as having a probable secondary infection. The study indicates a low risk of transmission during the initial phase of symptomatic Lassa fever, even with high-risk exposures. The risk may increase with progression of disease and increasing virus load.