Seven obligately anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming organisms isolated from human sources were characterized using phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the strains were genetically highly related to each other (displaying >99% sequence similarity) and represent a previously unknown sub-line within the Clostridium coccoides rRNA group of organisms. Strains of the unidentified bacterium used carbohydrate as fermentable substrates, producing acetic acid and lactic acid as the major products of glucose metabolism. The closest described species to the novel bacterium corresponded to Clostridium clostridioforme, although a 16S rRNA sequence divergence of 3% demonstrated they represent different species. Genomic DNA-DNA pairing studies confirmed the separateness of the unknown species and Clostridium clostridioforme. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is therefore proposed that the unknown bacterium, be classified as Clostridium bolteae sp. nov. The type strain of Clostridium bolteae is WAL 16351T (= ATCC(T) = BAA-613T, CCUG(T) = 46953T).