Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between maternal and cord leptin concentrations, maternal and neonatal outcomes, and measures of glycemic control in diabetic and nondiabetic pregnancy.
Study design: This was a prospective study of 60 type 1 diabetic and 50 nondiabetic pregnancies in a university teaching hospital. Serum leptin and hemoglobin A(1c) were measured serially throughout pregnancy; leptin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, and C-peptide in venous cord blood were measured at delivery. Leptin was measured with the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were analyzed with specific computer software.
Results: Maternal leptin levels correlated with cord leptin levels in the nondiabetic group only. Cord leptin levels correlated with cord C-peptide, cord insulin-like growth factor-1, birth weight, birth weight corrected for gestational age, and neonatal anthropometry in both groups and with hemoglobin A(1c) in the diabetic group only. Cord leptin levels increased significantly with increasing birth weight corrected for gestational age but remained significantly higher at all birth weights in the diabetic group.
Conclusion: There are strong associations between cord leptin levels and other measures of fetal growth in both groups and with glycemic control in the diabetic group.