Cranial skeletal biology

Nature. 2003 May 15;423(6937):326-31. doi: 10.1038/nature01656.


To artists, the face is a mirror of the soul. To biologists, the face reflects remarkable structural diversity--think of bulldogs and wolfhounds or galapagos finches. How do such variations in skeletal form arise? Do the same mechanisms control skeletogenesis elsewhere in the body? The answers lie in the molecular machinery that generates neural crest cells, controls their migration, and guides their differentiation to cartilage and bone.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Development
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Movement
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / genetics
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / metabolism
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / pathology
  • Humans
  • Morphogenesis*
  • Neural Crest / cytology
  • Neural Crest / metabolism
  • Regeneration
  • Skull / abnormalities
  • Skull / cytology
  • Skull / embryology*
  • Skull / metabolism