Bone is maintained by two cell types, bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Osteoblasts express two factors, osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), inhibiting and promoting osteoclast differentiation, respectively. In contrast, modulators of bone resorption expressed by osteoclasts have not been so well studied enough. In the present study, we demonstrate proteome analysis of secreted proteins during osteoclast differentiation to elucidate the molecular mechanism of bone resorption and bone remodeling. To achieve this objective, we chose RAW264.7 cells with RANKL as a homogeneous osteoclast differentiation model and used two methods, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and isotope-coded affinity tags (ICAT) analysis with two-dimensional liquid chromatography. We found 23 spots in 2-DE and 19 proteins in ICAT analysis which were expressed differently during osteoclast differentiation. These two methods gave us closely related but different information about proteins, suggesting they are complementary or at least supplementary methods at present. Cathepsins, osteopontin, legumain, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, and other proteins were observed as up- or down-regulated proteins and are discussed in the context of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. In addition to confirming previous observations, this study indicates novel proteins related to osteoclast differentiation which are potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of bone diseases, such as osteoporosis.