Hsp105alpha is a mammalian stress protein that belongs to the HSP105/110 family. Hsp105alpha prevents stress-induced apoptosis in neuronal cells and binds to Hsp70/Hsc70 and suppresses the Hsp70 chaperone activity in vitro. In this study, to further elucidate the function of Hsp105alpha, we searched for Hsp105alpha-binding proteins by screening a mouse FM3A cell cDNA library with full-length Hsp105alpha using the yeast two-hybrid system and obtained alpha-tubulin as an Hsp105alpha-binding protein. Hsp105alpha bound directly to alpha-tubulin both in vitro and in vivo. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis with anti-Hsp105 and anti-alpha-tubulin antibodies indicated that Hsp105alpha was colocalized with microtubules. Furthermore, the disorganization of microtubules induced by heat shock was prevented in Hsp105alpha-overexpressing COS-7 cells. These findings suggested that Hsp105alpha associates with alpha-tubulin and microtubules in cells and plays a role in protection of microtubules under conditions of stress.