A laboratory reference material (LRM) was prepared from Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) for quality control (QC) purposes of selenium speciation. The preparation of this LRM led through the usual operation steps applied during routine reference material production from biota samples-preparation of the raw material, homogenisation, storage design, checking of homogeneity, microbiological status and possible irradiation effects, and monitoring the species stability vs time at different storage temperatures. The selenium speciation studies to check species stability were carried out on a HPLC-UV-HG-AFS measurement set-up. Special attention was paid to the correct identification of selenium species by applying independent HPLC separation techniques (ion-pairing and anion-exchange chromatography). The concentration of selenomethionine (SeMet) and total Se content were quantified (79.9 microg g(-1) (calculated as Se) and 82.9 microg g(-1), respectively). The homogeneity and stability of this candidate reference material passed the relevant tests recommended by Bureau Communautaire de Référence (BCR).