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Review
, 81 (3), 224-9

Is Flavivirus Resistance Interferon Type I-independent?

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Review

Is Flavivirus Resistance Interferon Type I-independent?

Nadezda Urosevic. Immunol Cell Biol.

Abstract

Interferon type I comprises a group of major virus-inducible host antiviral factors that control infection with a great number of human and animal viruses. They are ubiquitously expressed cytokines that interfere with virus replication within different cell types by activating a number of host genes and several parallel antiviral pathways. Two major intracellular actors of IFN-I-induced antiviral states are ribonucleic acid-dependent protein kinase and 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetases/RNase L, both being induced by IFN-I and activated by viral double stranded ribonucleic acid. In addition, Mx proteins and ribonucleic acid-specific adenosine deaminase have also been implicated in IFN-I-induced antiviral responses to some RNA viruses. Viruses, in turn, have evolved different strategies to escape a control imposed by IFN-I and by IFN-I-induced antiviral factors. The fatal outcome of virus infection as well as the efficiency of IFN-I-based antiviral therapies in its prevention, are determined by complex interactions between viral virulence factors and cellular antiviral IFN-I inducible factors. In the light of these facts and current knowledge on IFN-I involvement in flavivirus infection, I discuss a possible role of IFN-I signalling in resistance to flavivirus infection in a model of congenic mouse strains that express different levels of susceptibility/resistance to common flaviviruses. Specifically, this review emphasizes importance of fully operative 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetases/RNase L pathway for the IFN-I-induced stimulation of flavivirus resistance conferred by Flv.

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