The cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 2a5 gene can be upregulated transcriptionally or by mRNA stabilization. The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 interacting with the CYP2A5 mRNA has been shown to be a key post-transcriptional regulator of the Cyp2a5 gene. The aim of this study was to investigate if the transcriptional and post-transcriptional steps of Cyp2a5 expression are linked. This was done by modifying the transcription rate with transcriptional inducers (phenobarbital and cyclic AMP) and inhibitors (actinomycin D and 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole) and analyzing the effects upon post-transcriptional events. We found that inhibition of transcription led to relocalization of hnRNP A1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, to its strongly increased binding to the cytoplasmic CYP2A5 mRNA and to CYP2A5 mRNA stabilization. In contrast, stimulated transcription resulted in increased binding of nuclear hnRNP A1 to the Cyp2a5 promoter, and overexpression of hnRNP A1 led to stimulated transcription of a Cyp2a5 promoter-driven luciferase recombinant. This strongly suggests that the transcriptional and post-transcriptional stages of Cyp2a5 expression are interrelated and that the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling hnRNP A1 may coordinate these different steps.