Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

MMWR Recomm Rep. 2003 Apr 25;52(RR-8):1-34; quiz CE1-4.


This report updates the 2002 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on the use of influenza vaccine and antiviral agents (CDC. Prevention and Control of Influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2002;51 [No. RR-3]:1-31). The 2003 recommendations include new or updated information regarding 1) the timing of influenza vaccination by age and risk group; 2) influenza vaccine for children aged 6-23 months; 3) the 2003-2004 trivalent inactivated vaccine virus strains: A/Moscow/10/99 (H3N2)-like, A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1)-like, and B/Hong Kong/330/2001-like antigens (for the A/Moscow/10/99 [H3N2]-like antigen, manufacturers will use the antigenically equivalent A/Panama/2007/99 [H3N2] virus, and for the B/Hong Kong/330/2001-like antigen, manufacturers will use either B/Hong Kong/330/2001 or the antigenically equivalent B/Hong Kong/1434/2002); 4) availability of certain influenza vaccine doses with reduced thimerosal content, including single 0.25 mL-dose syringes; and 5) manufacturers of influenza vaccine for the U.S. market. Although the optimal time to vaccinate against influenza is October and November, vaccination in December and later continues to be strongly recommended A link to this report and other information regarding influenza can be accessed at

Publication types

  • Guideline
  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antiviral Agents / administration & dosage
  • Antiviral Agents / adverse effects
  • Antiviral Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Contraindications
  • Cost of Illness
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Drug Interactions
  • Drug Resistance, Viral
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infection Control
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Influenza Vaccines / adverse effects
  • Influenza Vaccines / economics
  • Influenza, Human / drug therapy
  • Influenza, Human / economics
  • Influenza, Human / epidemiology
  • Influenza, Human / physiopathology
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pregnancy
  • Risk Factors
  • Vaccination / adverse effects
  • Vaccination / economics
  • Vaccination / standards*
  • Vaccines, Inactivated


  • Antiviral Agents
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Inactivated