The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydroxyapatite-coated and commercially pure titanium oral implants on nerve conduction. Isolated rat sciatic nerves were placed between two suction electrodes in a bath containing a tyrode solution. The implants were brought into intimate contact with the nerves and evoked compound action potentials (cAPs) were recorded before and after contact with the implants. The commercially pure titanium implants did not cause any change in cAPs. A gradual reduction in cAPs was observed for hydroxyapatite-coated implants. However, this reduction was < 50% after an application time of 120 min. Recovery of the cAPs in this group was recorded after approximately 60 min. We conclude that, although intimate contact with hydroxyapatite-coated implants leads to a reduction in cAPs in nerves in vitro, neither this surface nor a commercially pure titanium surface leads to irreversible neurotoxic effects.