From September 20, 1970 to October 24, 2001, we performed 46 kidney transplants in infants under 1 yr old at the University of Minnesota. This article reviews the preoperative care, surgical technique, and immunosuppression. Recipients included 16 females and 30 males; the youngest recipient was 6 wk old. The mean pretransplant height was 62.8 cm, which increased to 77 cm at 1 yr post-transplant and to 104 cm at 5 yr. We used 40 living donors (all but 1 were related to the recipient) and 6 cadaver donors. The overall actuarial graft survival was 85% at 1 yr and 70% at 5 yr. In the cyclosporine era, graft survival improved to 91% at 1 yr and 80% at 5 yr. Death with function was the most common cause of graft loss (n = 5), followed by biopsy-proven chronic rejection (n = 4), biopsy-proven recurrent disease (n = 3), and graft thrombosis (n = 2). Patient survival was 91% at 1 yr and 86% at 5 yr. In the cyclosporine era, patient survival was 100% at 5 yr and 85% at 10 yr. We concluded that an early transplant is the best treatment option for infants under 1 yr old with chronic renal failure. Whenever possible, adult living kidney donors should be used.