The reliability of the manual supination resistance test

J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2003 May-Jun;93(3):185-9. doi: 10.7547/87507315-93-3-185.


Several decisions need to be made when prescribing foot orthoses for abnormal foot pronation. One of these decisions is how much force is needed from orthoses to supinate the foot. The supination resistance test has been described as one technique to help determine the amount of force needed. The aim of this project was to determine the reliability of the manual supination resistance test. Four clinicians of differing levels of experience performed the test on 44 subjects (88 feet) on 2 separate days. The test had good reliability overall, with an intertester intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.89. For the two more experienced clinicians, the intratester intraclass correlation coefficients were good (0.82 and 0.78), but for the two inexperienced clinicians they were poor (0.56 and 0.62). The supination resistance test may be clinically useful in the prescription of foot orthoses, but more work is needed to determine its validity and its relationship to clinical outcomes.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Body Weight
  • Foot / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Orthotic Devices
  • Physical Examination / methods
  • Podiatry / instrumentation
  • Podiatry / methods*
  • Pronation / physiology*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Supination / physiology*