ES-62 is a phosphorylcholine (PC)-containing glycoprotein secreted by filarial nematodes, parasites of vertebrates including humans. We have previously demonstrated that pre-exposure to this molecule in vitro interferes with subsequent B-cell receptor (BCR)-dependent activation of murine splenic B lymphocytes. To investigate the significance of this during filarial nematode infection, we now employ mice exposed to ES-62, at concentrations equivalent to those found for PC-containing molecules in the bloodstream of parasitized humans, via release from implanted osmotic pumps. Using this approach, we reveal that splenic and lymph node mononuclear cells, and also purified splenic B cells recovered from these mice have reduced ability ex vivo to proliferate in response to BCR ligation. The effect on BCR-induced proliferation was further investigated with respect to elucidating the mechanism of action of the parasite product and was shown to be associated with impaired signal transduction affecting the ErkMAPkinase pathway. Also, it was found that ES-62 did not act by promoting apoptosis or by priming for apoptosis following subsequent stimulation, but rather, appeared to render cells hyporesponsive to stimulation. ES-62 is thus shown for the first time to be a potent modulator of B lymphocyte function in vivo at a concentration relevant to natural filarial nematode infection. This finding considerably strengthens the idea that ES-62 plays a role in evasion of the immune response during parasitism.