Aims/hypothesis: To determine the prevalence of the Metabolic syndrome (MetS) using modified ATP III criteria in urban Asian Indian adults.
Methods: 475 subjects (age 20-75 years) from a population data base were studied for the MetS using ATP III criteria but with a modified waist circumference (WC) appropriate for Indians. Presence of >or=3 of the following; raised WC (Men >or=90 cm, Women >or=85 cm), triglycerides (TG) >or=1.7 mmol/l), HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-C)-<1.0 mmol/l for men, <1.3 mmol/l for women, fasting plasma glucose (FPG)>or=6.1 mmol/l and blood pressure (BP)>or=130/>or=85 mm of Hg, or using BP medication, indicated the MetS. Insulin resistance (IR) was calculated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) equation. Factor analysis was used to identify clusters of correlated abnormalities.
Results: MetS was present in 41.1%. WC was increased in 31.4%, TG in 45.6%, low HDL-C in 65.5%, hypertension in 55.4% and raised FPG 26.7%. MetS was present in 27.9% of subjects with FPG<6.1 mmol/l and its prevalence increased to >70% with higher FPG values. MetS was more common in women than in men (46.5 vs. 36.4%, chi(2)=4.6, P=0.03) and in older people. Four distinct clusters of abnormalities were identified with some gender variations. IR was more prevalent in MetS and was a component of two clusters but it was not a core component in factor analysis.
Conclusions: MetS is common in Asian Indians. Its prevalence is age-related, and is more common in women. HOMA-IR or fasting plasma insulin was not a core component of the MetS.