Effects of a betaine-containing toothpaste on subjective symptoms of dry mouth: a randomized clinical trial

J Contemp Dent Pract. 2003 May 15;4(2):11-23.


Our aim was to study the effects of mildly flavoured sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)-containing and detergent-free toothpastes with and without betaine (BET) on subjective symptoms of dry mouth in a randomised clinical trial. BET is an osmoprotectant that reacts with molecules to supply the surface with a water coating that protects cells from surfactants. Twenty-seven xerostomic patients and 18 healthy controls took part in the randomised, double-blind clinical trial with a crossover design. Three mildly flavoured toothpastes: (1) 4% BET, (2) 1% SLS and 4% BET, and (3) 1% SLS were used for six weeks each. The reference or washout paste contained neither SLS nor BET. The subjects' dental appointments were at the beginning of the trial and before and after the use of each toothpaste. At each appointment, the subjects were interviewed about subjective sensations of dry mouth (Visual Assessment Scoring (VAS) Index). The subjects did not report any adverse effects in connection with the use of the toothpastes. The VAS scores for lip dryness and eating difficulties were significantly lower for the BET paste (lip dryness: BET<BET+SLS; p < 0.005 and eating difficulties: BET<BET+SLS; p = 0.02; BET<reference; p = 0.003). The BET paste relieved dry mouth symptoms in 44% of the xerostomic patients, the corresponding figures for the other pastes being BET+SLS 22% (p = 0.002 as compared with BET), SLS 18% (p = 0.022), and reference 7% (p = 0.000). In conclusion, all the mildly flavoured toothpastes used in this study were well accepted by the xerostomic subjects. Thus, other toothpaste components may be more mucosa-irritating than just SLS, or else they enhance the effect of SLS. The detergent-free, BET-containing toothpaste appeared to be associated with relief of some symptoms of dry mouth.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Betaine / therapeutic use*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dental Plaque Index
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Irritants / adverse effects
  • Lip Diseases / chemically induced
  • Lip Diseases / drug therapy
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mouth Mucosa / drug effects
  • Patient Satisfaction
  • Saliva / metabolism
  • Secretory Rate
  • Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate / adverse effects
  • Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate / therapeutic use
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Surface-Active Agents / adverse effects
  • Surface-Active Agents / therapeutic use
  • Toothpastes / adverse effects
  • Toothpastes / chemistry
  • Toothpastes / therapeutic use*
  • Xerostomia / chemically induced
  • Xerostomia / drug therapy*


  • Irritants
  • Surface-Active Agents
  • Toothpastes
  • Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
  • Betaine