Chlorine inhalation produces nasal congestion in allergic rhinitics without mast cell degranulation

Eur Respir J. 2003 Apr;21(4):652-7. doi: 10.1183/09031936.03.00049102.


Seasonal allergic rhinitic (SAR) subjects are more sensitive to nasal irritants than nonrhinitic (NR) subjects; however, the mechanism underlying this difference is unclear. This study sought to determine whether irritant-induced nasal congestion involves mast cell degranulation. Eight SAR and eight NR subjects were exposed to both 1.0 parts per million chlorine and filtered air in separate visits; exposures were via nasal mask and lasted 15 min. Rhinomanometry was performed before, immediately after and 15 min after exposure. Following > or = 2 weeks, exposures and symptom reporting were repeated with nasal lavage, rather than rhinomanometry, pre- and postexposure. A separate substudy using rye grass antigen provided a positive control. Mast cell tryptase was measured in nasal lavage fluid from both substudies using an automated fluoroenzyme immunoassay. Chlorine provocation significantly increased nasal airway resistance in SAR but not NR subjects. Conversely, tryptase levels in nasal lavage fluid were unaffected. Nasal allergen challenge significantly increased both nasal obstruction and nasal lavage tryptase in SAR subjects. Irritant-induced nasal congestion is more pronounced among seasonal allergic rhinitic than nonrhinitic subjects. However, unlike nasal allergen challenge, the mechanism of response to chlorine does not appear to involve mast cell degranulation.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Chlorine*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mast Cells
  • Middle Aged
  • Nasal Obstruction / physiopathology
  • Nasal Provocation Tests
  • Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal / physiopathology*
  • Statistics, Nonparametric


  • Chlorine