A phase I clinical trial was conducted in patients with stage III/IV breast cancer who were treated with the anti-idiotype mAb 1E10 specific to an Ab1 mAb able to react specifically with N-glycolyl-containing gangliosides and with antigens expressed on human melanoma and breast carcinoma cells. Patients were treated with 1 or 2 mg of aluminum hydroxide-precipitated 1E10 mAb every other week for six injections. Two patients at each dose were reimmunized 7-9 months after completing the induction phase. In hyperimmune sera from eight of the nine patients who received at least four doses of anti-Id vaccine preparations, strong specific responses were observed both against 1E10 mAb and NeuGc-GM3 ganglioside (Ab3 Id+Ag+). Nonclassical Ab1' antibodies (Id-Ag+) were also elicited by 1E10 mAb vaccine treatment. There were no differences between the two levels of dose tested in relation to toxicity and immunogenicity. No evidence of serious or unexpected effects was observed.