Cells expressing Toll-like receptor (TLR), TLR2 in association with TLR1, TLR6 or some other unknown co-receptor can respond upon interaction with a large variety of microbial ligands. The variety of TLR2 ligands is the greatest among all the TLRs and this is due to the heterodimerization needed for TLR2 mediated responses. Like other TLRs, TLR2 signaling induces antigen presenting cell activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine production and increased expression of co-stimulatory ligand expression. These events are important for induction of innate immune responses and improved acquired immunity. There is strong suggestive evidence that alteration or lack of TLR2 function in vivo may correlate to decreased immune protection from pathogens that contain TLR2 ligands, but more work needs to be performed to strengthen this correlation.