1 Adenosine, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), adenine, inosine and guanosine all caused concentration-dependent relaxations of guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle in vitro. The relative potencies in descending order were: adenine greater than or equal to guanosine greater than inosine greater than or equal to adenosine greater than or equal to ATP. 2 Responses to the purine compounds were unaffected by propranolol (1 mug/ml). 3 The spasmolytic potencies of adenosine and ATP were greatly enhanced in the presence of the adenosine uptake blocking drugs dipyridamole, hexobendine or Dilazep, whereas responses to adenine were unaffected and those to inosine and guanosine were reduced. 4 The spasmolytic potencies of noradrenaline, aminophylline, prostaglandin E2 and glyceryl trinitrate were unaffected by dipyridamole, hexobendine and Dilazep. 5 It is suggested that an adenosine uptake process may exist in the trachea of the guinea-pig and that this process is inhibited by dipyridamole, hexobendine and Dilazep.