New paradigm for optical imaging: temporally encoded maps of intrinsic signal

Neuron. 2003 May 22;38(4):529-45. doi: 10.1016/s0896-6273(03)00286-1.


We present a new technique for acquiring and analyzing intrinsic signal optical images of brain activity, using continuous stimulus presentation and data acquisition. The main idea is to present a temporally periodic stimulus and to analyze the component of the response at the stimulus frequency. Advantages of the new technique include the removal of heart, respiration, and vasomotor artifacts, a dramatic increase in spatial resolution, and a 30-fold or greater reduction in acquisition time. We also present a novel approach to localizing instantaneous neuronal responses using time-reversed stimuli that is widely applicable to brain imaging. To demonstrate the power of the technique, we present high-resolution retinotopic maps of five visual areas in mouse cortex and orientation maps in cat visual cortex.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain Mapping / methods*
  • Cats
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation
  • Evoked Potentials, Visual / physiology
  • Functional Laterality / physiology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C3H
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Neurons / physiology
  • Orientation / physiology
  • Photic Stimulation / methods
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Visual Cortex / blood supply
  • Visual Cortex / cytology
  • Visual Cortex / physiology*
  • Visual Perception / physiology*