Caspofungin, the first inhibitor of fungal beta-1,3 glucan synthesis to receive approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration, is effective for the treatment of mucosal and invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. It is also active in vitro and in animal models against a number of other filamentous and dimorphic endemic fungi and in animal models of Pneumocystis carinii infection. In vitro studies and some animal studies almost always indicate an absence of antagonism when caspofungin is combined with azole or polyene antifungal agents. Caspofungin has an excellent safety profile. Caspofungin may prove to be useful in empirical therapy for suspected invasive fungal infections. Additional clinical trial data that expand our knowledge of the usefulness of caspofungin for these and other mycoses, including its administration in combination with other antifungal agents, is anticipated. Caspofungin is an important addition to the antifungal pharmacopoeia.